Change began in the wake of the Age of Enlightenment when some European liberals sought to include the Jewish population in the emerging empires and nation states.
In an attempt to unify all streams of Judaism under one constitution, the Orthodox offered the Shulchan Aruch as the ruling Code of law and observance.
This was dismissed by the reformists, leading many Orthodox rabbis to resign from the Congress and form their own social and political groups.
However, there are many Haredi communities in which getting a professional degree or establishing a business is encouraged, and contact exists between Haredi and non-Haredi Jews.
Haredi communities are primarily found in Israel, North America, and Western Europe.
Haredi Judaism is a reaction to societal changes, including emancipation, enlightenment, the Haskalah movement derived from enlightenment, acculturation, secularization, religious reform in all its forms from mild to extreme, the rise of the Jewish national movements, etc.