Moreover, the table’s patterns are now recognized as related to the atom’s outermost electron patterns, which play an important role in explaining chemical reactivity and bond formation, and the periodic table continues to be a useful way to organize this information.
The substructure of atoms determines how they combine and rearrange to form all of the world’s substances.
The arrangement and motion of atoms vary in characteristic ways, depending on the substance and its current state (e.g., solid, liquid).
Chemical composition, temperature, and pressure affect such arrangements and motions of atoms, as well as the ways in which they interact.
Similarly, understanding a process at any scale requires awareness of the interactions occurring—in terms of the forces between objects, the related energy transfers, and their consequences.